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xml:lang="en-GB" lang="en-GB" > Radioklub Kunovice OK2KYD - Award „1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia” - Fortified settlement of St. Clement

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Fortified settlement of St. Clement


1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia

Fortified settlement of St. Clement

Hradisko or Mountain St. Clement St. Clement (local name Klimentek) is a place of pilgrimage, a National Historic Landmark and an important archeological site, is one of deep spiritual places connected with the history of Moravia. Hradisko is associated with St. Cyril and Methodius tradition. Naming the location depends on the tradition that St.. Cyril and St. Method of Chersonese transferred to this place remains of Pope St. Clement.

Location fort

Location Moravian fort is located on a strategically very well-chosen location at an altitude of 461 m on the southwestern summit Chřiby on jazykovitě elongated promontory, jutting out from the main ridge, with which it is connected by a narrow neck. Fort guarded the former old merchant route that connected the Morava middle to upper body Dyjsko-Svratka Valley. Hradisko is yet fairly well hidden, the east and the west is protected mountain wall, from which it is separated by steep slopes of deep valleys and gorges Klimentského stream its small tributaries. Located at a distance of 4 km northwest of the village Osvětimany .

Description of the area

The promontory is approximately triangular in shape with a length of about 1.4 km. The middle part promontory forms a wide and relatively flat terrain with a slight slope to the south, with a conical top of the highest in the northeastern part. The peak was probably artificially flattened into an oval shaped plateau, whose circumference is bounded artificial sandstone paved patio stones.

The acropolis fortified St. Clement are on the ground marked the foundations of a medieval church , dostavěného at the beginning of the last third of the 14th century from the original chapel of 9 century. Stands next to a woodenchapel from 1964 and the bell tower of St. Gorazd of 1985 . . Hradisko still surround the massive double Valová fortifications, from the east side to triple. Space inside the fortified area has an area of approximately 8 hectares, the outer wall encloses an area of about 22 ha.

Written sources

The oldest written record of this locality, hidden in the silence of mountain forests Chřiby comes Charter of1358 , dated as of 18 April, in which the Bishop of Olomouc Jan Ocko of Vlasim confirms that the Moravian Margrave Jan Heinrich of Luxemburg gave Brno Augustinians "... Chapel of Blessed Clement, Pope and Martyr in a forest retreat closer to his new castle Cimburk lying, in ancient times, although exposed to the worship of the same saint, but now from many years all pohřešující worship, along with the building adjacent to the same chapel, surrounded by moats round ... ".

Other written sources can be seen that the Hussites of Tábor in New Nedakonice under the leadership of Frederick Strážnice in April 1421 unsuccessfully attacked Kyjov and it is possible that at least on the way back at the ruined Augustinian provost Osvětimany, like before 12th January Cistercian monastery in Velehrad .

Around 1700 Přerov chronicler and priest John George Středovský recorded folk saying that refers to the year 864 : "When Cyril feared uncertain fortune of war, being very caring about his gem, is the remains of St. Clement, he began to build with the permission of the king on the spot inaccessible, mountains and forests besieged, near Velehrad around that old castle now Cimburk protests, church in honor of St. Clement, in which, if danger threatened, could be expensive relics ... shelter outside noise of war. "In Medieval here even after In 1700 CNEL at the top of the hill "remains quite high church walls."

A detailed history of the fort St. Clement was drawn Moravian surveyor Clearance in Gregory IV. book of his work from 1838 Markgrafschaft Mähren (pp. 176-178).

About Klimentku and svatoklimentské and Cyril and Methodius tradition in this field, and respect for this area alluded to in his little work Devin and Velehrad of 1902 Kroměříž Councilman Joseph Gloza. From memories of his father, a peasant from Žeravice quoted the romantic idea: "When I reached Velehrad, from Fort two miles away, there was a monastery, around paid."

Life on the fortified

Gorazdova belfry

Fort was probably already visited in the early Bronze Age. In the first half of the ninth century . there was built a fortified fortress, where there was a permanent and self-Slavic settlement. After the fall of the Great Moravian fortified settlement served St. Clement surrounding residents of refuge fort, where refuge in times of danger of war and guarding trade routes. Findings is evidence of settlement in the 10th and early 11thcentury . Hradisko was administered only remaining Slavic monks, called "Moravian black monks". Sometime in the first half of the 12th centuryfort and were abandoned during the 14th and 15th century was inhabited again. After the year 1358 in an effort to restore svatoklimentský Brno Augustinian monastery built the Gothic church. He stood up to the year1421 . Termination of the monastery is associated with dragging Moravian Hussites , when the monastic community attacked nedakoničtí Hussites, returning from the reflected attack on Kyjov . Resulting from damage to the Augustinian convent (one dwelling monks of the monastery church) was the local provost Peter forced to flee and relocate with a few monks to nearby Vřesovice where, according to tradition lived for some time at the local fortress, probably with the intention to repair buildings on St. fortified. Clement and come back. In subsequent years, however, the Augustinian order affected the financial charges of war and to restore the monastery was carried out.

After the Hussite raid the spiritual life at the Mount St. Clement stopped and gradually subsided and the life economic. The site was inhabited only hermits. Around the year 1500, there is one such hermit lived, was a knightof King George Smetana Osvětimany. Jiri Smetana was born sometime around 1450 in the rodovétvrzi Osvětimanyhad no children and bequeathed his property Protivec of Zástřizly, master's Buchlov , and he retreated to the solitude of the forest.

In 1564 he was stopped Klimentek Kyjov .

During the 16th century ceased to be occupied by the ruins of the monastery completely. From the 17th centurynoblemen surrounding area changed into a source of cheap building materials and dozens of adventurers prokopáváním thoroughly devastated the Acropolis in an attempt to find the treasure of the Augustinians. Buildings were analyzed and used as building material for the castle Cimburk , Buchlov , or at various folk homestead.Although the fort was mostly deserted, still remained in the consciousness of the people and is occasionally visited by pilgrims. One of them was Přerov Catholic priest and pastor John George Středovský Ignatius, whose visit in1770 described in the report. In 1838 there was built boršický pastor John Studeník wooden chapel with a belfry.Since 1880 stood in the chancel of the church chapel. In 1964 built koryčanští citizens led by Stanislav P. Straňák instead of the original chapel located in the chancel of the foundations of a wooden Gothic church chapel. In 1985members of the Community of St. built Gorazd and species - Live heritage behind the wooden chapel bell tower of St. Gorazd. In the 90 the 20th century St. Community here. Gorazd and kinds - Living Heritage established a tradition of Cyril and Methodius Gorazdovo the school, which was held in around the 27th week July, which falls on the feast of St. Gorazd and species.

Each year it hosts a pilgrimage on the feast of Pentecost .

Archaeological findings and research

Information boards

The first warning we ever talk already in the 17th century . In 1691 he was because in the former, the now well discovered buried in the monastery bell, cast in 1521 . According to Gregory Moravian surveyorFree up here then in 1770 left the tunnel fortress mansion owner buchlovští, barons of Petřvald when based on circulating rumors allegedly looking for hidden treasures and took the stone cells processed for further use.

In 19th century started to be interested in Klimentek osvětimanský pastorLawrence Jugan. In 1837 odkopal a church, in which the results of the stacked stone perimeter wall, so that the ground plan has formulated them. Found him paving the church was reportedly driven to pave buchlovických stables.

Under the leadership of archaeologist and spelunker MD. Wankla Henry , examined in the years 1885 to 1888 fort museum Patriotic Association in Manchester and came across some masonry buildings of the temple, which they then Jindrich Wankel thought it was masonry monastery from the time of Cyril and Methodius.

Further excavations conducted here stupavský pastor Lawrence and Sigmund Sudický head teacher vv Joseph Faitand after them still in 1878 spiritual Franz Metcalf and in 1880 rector Jan boršický cold. Their findings were sent to the MD. Henry Wanklovi.

The first systematic research has been conducted in the years 1903 to 1905 the postal clerk and Robert slovanistouČechmánkem in order to find the fortified monastery of Saints Cyril and Methodius. Inside the nave skeleton uncovered seven graves without charity and one additional (eighth) skeleton graves, uncovered 15th June 1905 in the chancel behind the altar, he found a piece of oak wood načernalého which asked for the rest of the Episcopal crutches. The grave was immediately issued for local enthusiasts grave right Methodius. Fragments and shards of ceramic tiles originating from the research of Robert Čechmánka, however, are characteristic of the 14th century .Also, after anthropological expertise, which was carried out in 1950 Archaeology Institute of the CSAS in Prague, dated dr. Jaromir Chochol old skeleton until the 13th to 15th century . This myth of the fallen Methodius grave at St. fortified. Clement. Archaeological Survey Robert Čechmánka also highlights the underground space, probably for wine cellars, broken glass and pieces of iron vessels.

A little later, a small archaeological survey conducted members of the Archaeological Society Old Velehrad. Surface exploration fort made ​​of 1915 also a leading archaeologist Moravian Innocent Ladislav Červinka . Further research conducted privately Koryčany native Vítězslav Gloza from 1922 to 1923 , is notable finding Byzantine gold coin, thesolidus of the emperor Theophilus reigning from 829 to 842 , the father of the later emperor Michael III .

Amateur local research sites in the year 1930 dealt with the nuts svatoklimentská, based in Brno. In 1942 he foundWilliam Gross on the eastern slope of the main fort rampart four fractions Great Moravian pottery. In 1958, William Gross has launched a systematic archaeological research that showed age fort of 1 half of the 9th century. In the area of the acropolis was discovered quantities Great Moravian pottery, a number of bones of domestic animals (sheep, goats, cows and pigs), bone and stone proplétačky burs. By 2 half of the 9th century are dated fragments of fine white plaster mortar, but only from the chancel area, not the entire building complex. From 1961 to 1962carried out further research Vladimir Ondrus from the Moravian Museum in Brno, which established several construction phases of the church, because the stones and mortar six buttresses on the outside of the church had a different character than the actual walls and pillars were tied to walls. According to both surveys later gothic chancel of the church the rest of the Great Moravian chapel. Clement of 9th century . The second construction phase is not time entirely sure was possible in the 11th century , but perhaps also ending up in the first third of the 14th century in connection with the construction of the nearby castle Cimburk. Third Augustinian conversion with an extension coincides with a period from the mid 14th century . Piece of work on the left discoveries also sought to Robert and Dominican priest Jiri Vesely Maria . The latest research was carried out in 1989 Luděk Galuška of the Moravian Museum . Were uncovered remnants of sunken dwelling with furnace slag and iron, presumably workshops for metal processing. About 900 fragments of pottery comes from the older phase of the Great Moravian Empire. The body was found a stone fortification wall with a width of 80 cm, probably the rest of the front stone.

Research has confirmed the fortified settlement area no later than the first half of the ninth century, several  ceramic fragments from the Early Bronze Age settlement, however, does not exclude older.

Preparatory prayer

God, you sent our ancestors saints Cyril and Methodius preached the Gospel to them Slavic language, grant that we also gladly accept your message, we follow it in their lives and their intercession, whether we are all connected in the unity of faith and love.