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xml:lang="en-GB" lang="en-GB" > Radioklub Kunovice OK2KYD - Award „1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia” - Stare Mesto

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Stare Mesto


1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia

Staré Město

Old Town (to 1996 Old Town near Uherske Hradiste) is a town in the district of the Zlín region on the right bank of the Morava River. In 2011, there were nearly 7,000 people. Along with Uherske Hradiste and Kunovice conurbation forms with more than 38 thousand inhabitants.

Before the Great Moravian history

The Old Town has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Archaeological research is documented settlement in the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age.

The most important representative of the people of Bronze Age people Unetic culture whose settlement is expected in places near the cemetery, more concrete evidence in the form of skeleton graves are from the site Zahradky. The people of the Middle Bronze Age artifacts left behind in the Old Town area and Špitálky Čertůj corner. The Early Bronze Age settlement evidence exists unique culture of the people Velatice Špitálky locations. But evidence of settlement Lusatian culture of the people is eleven. It is a Čertúj kút, Zadní Kruhy, Zahrádky, Trávník, Na Valách, Na Dědině, Za Kostelíkem, Špitálky, Nový Svět, Olší a Špilov. From the Iron Age - Hallstatt is evidence of settlement culture of the people of linen Devil Kuta and Counterfeits position. From the period of La Tene Celtic settlement is expected back in position Circles completed the primordial civilizing process.

From the ancient Roman and Migration Period Germanic settlement is expected to Devil's bed. Compared rare findings Germanic frequent and seem interesting findings of Roman provenance mainly from positions Špitálky and the village.

Sometimes at the end of the sixth and 7 byi century, Slavs settled on the promontory on the gelding. The presence of additional settlements is perhaps the Špitálkách. In the eighth růběhu century, the settlement of other localities in the land of the Old Town in positions on Zerzavici, The Town Hall, behind the garden. Sometime in the middle of the 8th century or shortly thereafter in a housing estate was built on the gelding wall with a moat, which established a fortified settlement.

Great Moravianhistory
About half of the 9th century, the gelding for the construction of a brick church. Acropolis, the Old Town "The Valachi" reached the boom in the second half of the 9th century. The establishment of other settlements in close proximity to an extensive body of a fortified city, nowadays known by the term "agglomeration", then the situation with extreme concentration of population. Location The gelding has gradually become a central burial entire agglomeration, which terminated the initial settlement. Consequently, there seems also to move part of the population to other parts of agglomeration.

Installation of agglomeration was divided on targeted areas including manufacturing districts specialized craft production, subject to certain urban concept (power facility in the village, the church of the production facilities, resp. U Vitus, The Špitálkách and Nad Haltýři, market space Salaška, central necropolis on the gelding, settlement districts for the garden, the fish shop and Špitálkách, the island of St. Jiří with power and component manufacturing, central religious area in Sadské promontory Derfla). Inside and outside the border agglomerations are evidence of several kinds of fortifications from the fortifications lighter design (eg the Christinův ancient wall structure and shape) to the wall of the strongest yet discovered in our Great Moravian hradisek, in the eastern part of Uherské district Rybárně Bumbalov in position. Wall shell structure with massive, over 2 m thick stone wall, was almost 10 meters wide.

After Great Moravianhistory
When during the 10th century Moravia lost its superpower status, it manifested itself naturally to velkosídlišti in the Old Town. Earlier fort was converted into a market village, which bore the name Veligrad (Veligrad villa), as the well-known list of Olomouc Bishop Henry Zdík from 1141, which is usually more accurately classified the creation of this document, or a document from the year 1228 (list of goods Velehrad monastery the privilege Premysl Otakar I.), stating Weligrad, formerly the city, now township, or also the former fort, now a market town (Weligrad, civitas directly, modo burgus). The importance of this market place, where "markets are held from time immemorial", again increased when the Moravian margrave Vladislav Henry in the early 13th century in 1205 founded the Cistercian monastery near Veligrad. The "old and well-known market rights" but Veligrad came in 1257 when he was in command of the Czech king Ottokar II. the transfer of rights from the market and close Veligrad Kunovice) to the newly founded city on an island in the Morava River, which was given first title New Town, a year later, New Veligrad and later in the early 14th century, when the name caught on Velehradu for a new community around Velehrad monastery, leveling off for New Veligrad name Fort (or Fort of Moravia), from 17 century Hungarian Hradiště. Old Town is the last settlement Veligrad named in a charter of King John of Luxemburg second March 1315 (CDM VI., No. 88, p 61). The deed of Alberta Zdounky of 5 February 1321 has been called the Old Town. Since then the original Veligrad was called Antiqua civitas - Old City, Monastery in the Old City built a farmstead, which served to supply.

Until the mid-15th century belonged to the Old town city parish. However, the decline Velehrad monastery during the Hussite wars caused the Old Town was given to the monastery pledge hometown in 16th century, the Old Town by the provincial boards became the property of the town of. For Hradiště Old Town burghers had special significance as an agricultural center with farmyards and profitable free goods.

From the mid-19th century has changed in the meantime downright agricultural character of the village. It was built in 1841 and put into operation the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway, which merged with Vienna Old Town and industrialized areas in northern Moravia and Silesia. Founding brothers sugar Maya in 1868 and other industrial companies led to the fact that in addition to the agricultural community layer appeared numerous workers.

In 1990 by popular referendum on the Old Town became independent separation from neighboring Fort Hungary and in 1997 was promoted to the Old Town of the city. In the same 1997 hit Old Town Hundred water from flooded Moravia. As a result of catastrophic floods was razed a total of 93 houses.

Archaeological excavations

Localities of the Old Town and Fort Hungary (area Great Moravian land agglomeration exceeded today's Old Town) raise permanent interest to archaeologists since the mid-19th century.

The first real excavations of archaeological excavations having the character of the soil were carried out in the Old Town, 70 and 80 the 19th century. They are connected with the names of the Old Town teachers and archaeologist Julia Jerome Christina (1868-1870), a priest Francis Přikryl (1876-1887), a priest Vychodil Julia, Jana did not believe, Forester Ernest Matzenauer, teachers Homola Joseph (1880-1885), Dr. F. tanner Myklíka and Francis (1888-1889). The findings Christinova successor at Old Town School Francis Myklíka also became interested in archeology leading representative of Moravian Innocent Ladislav Červinka. Other researchers turn of the 19th and 20 century belongs Ignatius Weaver, Dr. Martin Cross and Bartholomew Hanak.

The second phase of archaeological research in the Old Town is linked primarily to the teacher and amateur archaeologist muzejníka Zelnitia Anthony, who gathered around him a group of volunteers (K. Hanak, A. HORSÁK, J. skinner, E. and V. Hruby gluten). Finally, we also managed to attract "The Vala" Leaders First Republic's archaeological science - first veletinského native, significant Slavic scholar and university professor Lubor Niederle (1927) and its contribution and the director of the State Institute of Archaeology Charles Buchtel and then Jaroslav Böhm and ultimately the American scholar VJ Ferokese and RV Ehrich (1928). They even took part in the excavations themselves. Other variables interwar archeology, interested in issues of Great Moravian Old Town was a German scholar Karl Dinklage. In 1942, archaeological excavations in the Old Town for three years suspended.

The beginning of the third stage of archaeological fieldwork in the Old Town can be assigned to 1948. A head archaeologist when he joined the Brno University graduate, former teacher William Gross. Under his leadership, was in 1949 in The gelding made a discovery that is indelibly recorded in the history of our archeology. With continued research cemeteries were uncovering negative base fills grooves with a horseshoe mainframe church apse, representing the discovery proved the first brick architecture from the period of Great Moravia in the Czech Republic. (Or the other. Previously discovered church in Blue at Velehrad in 1911, John did not believe at the time was not yet did not have evidence that this is a church from the 9th century). The results of their work published in a monograph William Gross: Old Town - Great Moravian Velehrad. A major change in the strategy of archaeological research on the soil of the Old Town was in 1976. Was the result of expanding housing construction and investment, which hit large areas of gardens and fields, often in the urban community. Recent research associated with the name Doc. PhDr. Ludek Galuška PhD.

In the area of ​​the Great Moravian agglomeration was uncovered several bases or foundations negatives masonry churches (in the village, the gelding Špitálky Christinova the wall, the church (U Vitus), on the island of St. George, the promontory Sadské Derfla).

At the Old Town agglomeration found many typical Great Moravian gold, silver or bronze (i plated) jewelry (earrings, earrings, rings, necklaces, pendants, buttons, bells, tongue-piece, etc.), as well as weapons (so-called bradatice axes, swords, knives , spear), spurs, tools (chisels, fractions drills, saws, Diggers), agricultural tools, pottery vessels (fractions cauldron and pots, pans, cups, pitchers, flasks, pitchers, vědérka, lids), and melting ovens and other artifacts (Hryvnia and the magnifying glass, lead crosses with the image of the crucified, caliper, plaque, buckles, blades, sharpening steels, pliers, wrenches, horseshoes, needles, pins, whorls, proplétačky, punches, gags, chains, fittings, skates, whistle, flint and steel, cutlery, scissors, hladidla, handles, combs, buttons, beads, paintings and remnants of skin, cuts, bricks, roof tiles, monoxyly-oak dugout boats).

Given that the site of the former Great Moravian city agglomerations located, respectively. two cities, it is expected that further discoveries may follow.
Na Dědině

The slightly elevated terrace above the old riverbed of Moravia in the position of the village stands the church of St. Michael surrounded by Old Town cemetery. Archaeological research of the cemetery is virtually impossible, since over eleven hundred years, the land turns funerals still new, so all the layers are already perfectly mixed. Only in the exploration church. Michael has learned under the floor of the Great Moravian few undisturbed tombs and the foundations of the rotunda half of the 9th century with some elements of ancient building techniques. According stratigraphy rotunda survive the fall of Great Moravia (confirms this finding Ota dissolved the denarius from the years 1061 to 1086), was corrected new layer cast mortar floors and decorated. It served its purpose until the mid-13th century, when it replaced the mainframe elongated rectangular church with chancel, built by the Cistercians. (Dating is confirmed by the finding of brick tiles from the workshops Velehrad Cistercian monastery.) They used material from the demolished rotunda and thus found in the walls of the church for the third time used Roman bricks (106 pcs.) In 1645 it was destroyed by the Swedes, and in 1734 was restored. In this form serves to this day.

The importance of church. Michael evidenced by the fact that it was up to the end of the 16th century parish church for Hungarian Fort, the Church of Saint George it was a member as a filial (perhaps the original meaning of time Veligrad).

Hexagonal chapel. John was probably not long before the conversion of the church in the 13th century., as architectural elements chapel. Jana are archaic and by the nature and composition of the wall is the same in both buildings. The chapel. John was not used Roman bricks. Otherwise Roman bricks with stamps XIV. Legion of Carnuntum (labeled ANT LEG XIII to G) and private producer also from Carnuntum here we encounter almost everywhere (still about 1000 pieces and fragments). Probably derive from residues near yet undiscovered Roman buildings.

The location of the village near the rotunda was uncovered profane (secular) object 18 x 10 m for the construction of the palace marked according to the type of the stratigraphy of the Great Moravian peak periods. He was asked mortar celokamenné massive walls, the thickness indicates that there could, but need not be a multi-storey building. The building was equipped with three types of cast mortar floors. Its roof was made up of burnt roofing ancient character and decorative Ridge. Near the wall was discovered deep masonry well.

In the vicinity of the palace rotunda and blossomed agricultural settlement. At the edge of the settlement in this area was discovered surprisingly large kovolitecká and jewelery workshop with many furnaces and auxiliary operations wreath around. A striking finding was to find gold and bronze residues tauzované Bull - Cases seal (proving the presence of very significant sovereign).

Na Valách

Location gelding is part of an extremely large necropolis with an estimate of at least 10 ha. Burial grounds were used continuously almost half millennium (6 to 10 cent.) And the most frequent was from the 9th century to the mid 10th century. Approximately 2,500 graves from this period stopadesátiletého indicates the very large population settlements. The graves are sometimes overlapped in five layers.

Quantity of various jewelry findings suggests that the population lived in relative affluence. Discovered a variety of craft workshops and manufacturers of fine vessels, luxury items and jewelery show that they are not imports, but domestic production.

Conversion originally a pagan burial ground in the Christian cemetery peaked sometime shortly after the middle of the ninth century. foundation of the church cemetery with rectangular ship 8.5 x 7.25 mA semicircular 5 m long and 4.25 m wide apse. The floor of the nave was probably unloaded tan tiles in the chancel was formed molded mortar floor.

Fortified settlement around the necropolis had an area of ​​about 18 ha and it adjoined the south side of the forecastle area of ​​about 7 ha. Workshop facilities focused on the southeastern edge of the fort and the adjacent castle. If this was a fortified acropolis, it is impossible to find a dense space consumption.

The gelding housing residents made their living growing cereals and cattle farming supplemented by hunting game and fishing. Among the crafts pottery clearly stood out not only for the domestic market but also for export, stonework, wood processing, mining and processing of iron ore, smithing, iron founding and jewelry, weaving, tanning and weight findings suggest that there was also trade.

Nad Haltýři

Above Haltýři settlement in the southeast almost follows the northwestern edge of the housing estate on the gelding. Here were found iron foundries, kovolitecké and jewelery workshops. According to the results of alloys can be considered as the bell. Iron ore processed in the colony came partly from a few hearty local sources, partly from imports. Ore imports in content approaching red Scandinavian.

Also on the estate can be observed a clear intention to concentrate urban fire crafts dangerous to places where they can not detrimental to existing settlement.

Above Haltýři settlement was about immigration, residents might merged into the local population, because buried on the estate.

West of hardware colony was established in the last third of the 9th century over the hillside above the promontory Salaškou agricultural settlement around the windmill, the foundations of which were found there.


Špitálky settlement on the southern promontory between the flow of Moravia and Salašky is interesting first prehistoric finds in the Old Town (the Myklíkovo site). Other findings that escaped destruction during the construction of the local railway line, part of the fortified settlement period, předslovanské and Slavic. Continuity to the Late Great Moravian graves attest to the Devil's skin, a steep bank above the stream Moravia and slightly east in a field track Niva. In addition to housing the objects were found the remains of founder and ironworks furnaces. Many promising findings were destroyed during the construction of incomprehension family houses. The many findings is not known exactly where found (eg gold jewelery), as they were later handed over to the Moravian Museum. Another part of the archaeological site violated the rail body. Work progressed so rapidly that some of the systematic survey could be no question. Is irretrievably lost archaeological content of the Devil Kuta, where the current annual Moravia tearing down whole blocks of land.

A similar fate befell the southwestern part Špitalek. For dredging gravel were violated some graves. Excavator to hit the brick foundations of buildings, there was a profession archaeologists. Before they could strike, leaving only half of the foundations. How soon turned out, it was the foundation of the ownership of the church and the graves of Great Moravia. Expected velmožský court has not yet been found, and stood on the south side, already found will not.

On the boat with inner dimensions of approximately 7 x 6 mA with traces of pillars build on the east side of the apse 3 x 3 m and on the west side hallway (nartex) 6 x 6 m According jewelry found, of which the most famous is the silver plaque with the falconer, and other inventory graves in the church can be dated to the second half of the 9th century.

Špitálky settlement was inhabited about as intensively as the geldings settlement and its population has at least as old roots.

Na Kostelíku (U Víta)

On the north side of the village settlements on it almost builds settlements on other churches. The name, according to church. Vitus, which in these places stood until its abolition by Joseph II. Shortly afterwards it was demolished. The following extraction of clay destroyed many traces of ancient settlements and tombs. Still managed to find a settlement from the late 9th century. and later from the early 13th century.

Na Zahrádkách

Further north at mokřinatou area were discovered the remains of an agricultural settlement on Zahrádkách. There were dozens of graves, but so near the surface that it is considered that the majority of tracks Moravian settlers succumbed to destruction.

Na Zerzavici

The settlement Zerzavici (older name Ténice) lying on a low sandy ridge between Moravia and Jalubským creek near their confluence. In the deepest layers were found traces of habitation from the Neolithic period. Slavic settlement is documented from around the mid 8th century and probably lived in the 13th century. At the time of the Great Moravian lived farmers and fishermen. In building the canal in 1935 at the northern end of the village instead dug-worked sandstone rocks, nobody is closer did not examine not focus instead of their findings. Possible handed down hospital with St. Clement remains conjecture.


On the east of the settlement Zerzavici in position near Bumbalov strong eastern fortifications entire agglomeration is evidenced Great Moravian settlement, probably having to protect the old ford across Moravia.


  • Church of St. Michael the Archangel (Old Town)
  • Memorial Great Moravia
  • Rotunda of St. Michael
  • The statue of St. John of Nepomuk
  • Church of the Holy Spirit, in construction, preparatory work began in 2001, estimated completion in 2014  


  • Omelka Francis (1904-1960), writer and Esperanto
  • Josef Doll (1937), shooter and Olympian
  • Jiří Pavlica (1953), musician, bandmaster folk band Hradišťan
  • Rostislav Sochorec (1900-1948), politician
  • Zelnitius Anthony (1876-1957), an amateur archaeologist

Preparatory prayer

God, you sent our ancestors saints Cyril and Methodius preached the Gospel to them Slavic language, grant that we also gladly accept your message, we follow it in their lives and their intercession, whether we are all connected in the unity of faith and love.