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xml:lang="en-GB" lang="en-GB" > Radioklub Kunovice OK2KYD - Award „1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia” - Uherské Hradiště

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Uherské Hradiště

 

1150 years since the arrival of St. Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia

Uherské Hradiště

Uherske Hradiste is a district town in the Zlín Region, 23 km southwest of the town itself on the left bank of the Morava River. In 2011, there were over 25,000 people. Together with the Stare Mesto and Kunovice conurbation forms with more than 38 thousand inhabitants.

The city was founded on the 15th October in 1257 by Czech King Otakar II .. Hungarian Fort has always been a natural center of Slovakia - a region famous peculiar folklore, folk music, fine wine, richly decorated costumes and many folk traditions preserved. The historical center was declared an urban conservation area. Uherské gymnáziumbylo founded in 1884 as the oldest Czech secondary school in the region.

History

Prehistory and Velkomoravská agglomeration

Excavations Moravian church on the hill metropolitan, pohřbusv possible place. Method

The city was already inhabited in the Stone Age and is one of the oldest residential areas in the Czech Republic. These points lead in the vertical from north to south Moravian part of the amber routes Krakow-Moravia-Vienna (now rediscovered as an enticement to increase tourism) and Hungarian in the horizontal path from west to east. In the 8th and 9century, it was at this juncture created island fortress system. Three uninhabited islands of the Morava River were on the 9th century Slavs settled. The center was called St. George Island, named after his chapel, whose patron was St.. George. Velkomoravská agglomeration of today's Old Town, Fort, and Hungary orchard belonged to important centers of Great Moravia. Archaeological Survey unlike the Great Moravian sites Mikulčice-Valy, however difficult the current area, as well as in Kyjov or Hodonín.

On the territory of contemporary Hungarian Hradiště (part sets) to the agglomeration of the Old Town center was situated probably the area in which the concentrated power management, craft production, trade and religious objects of culture. Probably due to the advantages of river terrain (location on the island) were recently found traces of any specific massive fortifications, which would confirm the theory that it was the center of the Great Moravian Empire Veligrad. Changing this situation came to the discovery of yet nejmohutnějšího Moravian fortification in a fish shop.


St. George Island

The road to the ford from the south led through the Sv. George (on which later founded Přemysl II. Otakar Royal City New Veligrad). The island became preserved reports by stone chapel. George. Her remains were found beneath the masonry foundation in the late 18th canceled century and ruined Gothic church of St. George, which replaced the chapel sometime in the early 15th century. Stood in the main diagonal, today Masaryk Square.

Current development does not allow to assess populousness Moravian settlement.Sporadic findings suggest settlement in the 8th century. The Great Moravian period can be traced continuous belt settlements from ford at Bumbalova to mařatického hill slopes. In addition to residential buildings were found Great Moravian graves, stirrups, battle axes, etc., at the chapel. George riding gear.

The fortifications, many do not. Before the medieval castle walls on the west and north side are the remains of an earthen rampart of unknown origin, which has a different trajectory than the medieval walls. Land around the mound is now called Old ténice (which indicates the place of the old fortifications). Similarly, it seems that from the end wall for Bumbalovem continues on the other side kind of regulated Moravia elevated line along the old meander toward Moravia mařatickému hill. She loses and the buildings behind her hillside appears possible its continuation. Without archaeological verification but it can not be confirmed.

Continuing bubalovského, as Christinova wall (possibly also zlechovského Wall) on the other side of the river would mean a great line of defense for the entire velkomoravskouaglomeraci, because it would allow her to conclude from the south and from the north. A similar c

harakter fortifications on both sides of the stream known from other Slavic sites (Novgorod) and forward from the old ramparts such locks at Líšeň or from other Slavic countries (Poland, Ukraine).


Middle Ages

Founding abbot of Hartlib and Otakar II.

In the mid-13th century eastern Moravia - then still at the border effect Přemyslovců and Hungary as the Lucká province - came under hostile raids, which also suffered from the population nearby monastery in Velehrad. And the abbot of Hartlib Velehrad monastery (founded in the 13th stoletícisterciáky), he turned to the king asking for protection of the area. Mediator him by Bishop Bruno of Schauenburg, which together with the royal councilors elected to the foundation of the island fortress on the river Morava with St. George, at which time it was only a few fishing huts. KrálPřemysl Otakar II. after 15th October 1257 testified charter, the city was founded on the island, which is owned Velehrad monastery. According to the Charter, the city has also protect convent land border, so for him instead of the original New Town began in 1258 now use the name New Velehrad. From neighboring Veligrad (Old Town) and near Kunovice was also transferred to it market rights.

 


Names: New Velehrad, Radisch, Uherské Hradiště, Slovacke Hradiště

Already at the end of the 13th century became the new name Velehrad renege. In 1294 the city has called Hradiště and this name became established in the early 14th century, when the name caught on Velehrad for a new village that was founded around Velehrad monastery. The name "Fort", sometimes distributed to the "Fort of Moravia" was often altered in historical sources, and the city and states such as Hradisst or Hradisscze. The Czech name originated in Latin or German Radisch. The current name "Hungarian Hradiště" first appeared in 1587 and was inspired by the same attribute name in Hungary Brod (originally "Brod at the Hungarian border"). At the end of the 17 and 18th century, this attribute has begun to appear more frequently.In the 50 20th century considered for renaming to "Slovácké Hradiště" because the attribute "Hungarian" was for that time already somewhat dated. Proposal for a new name, however, was the public in 1957 in celebration of 700 years since the founding of the city rejected. To rename, there was only nodes (which was in the years 1949 to 1989 the name "Gottwaldov" and previously at the village Vnorovy (which until 1924 used the name "Znorovy", but the term was eventually enacted in writing earlier). 


Medieval layout

  • Masaryk Square Float: The city still has two squares that were placed on the establishment of two separate islands. He shared a narrow creek or ditch - a few meters wide channel called the "float" that flowed down the street today to float over Vegetable Market, Middle Street, Court after Hall and gardens where the parish church from the 13th century dedicated to the Virgin Mary (the present Church of the Annunciation dates from the mid-18th century, the original was destroyed at the end of the Thirty Years' War) and left the city behind him. Representation float is visible on old engravings of the city.
Two Uherskohradišťsko Square: Masarykovo and Marian
  • Marian Square Two Square: After its founding, the city was inhabited by residents of two adjacent villages-Kunovice market and Old Town.Both of these groups have built their Square: Square Kunovjané had called up to the main square in 1955 and later Gottwald and now since 1990 Masaryk Square, standing on it church. George, whose foundations are now hidden under dlažbou.Staroměšťané had Marian Square Marian plague column for komunismuzvané armády.Obě Square Red Square was later linked to Middle Street, which was very narrow, they can be easily dam, as between the two ethnic groups are often formed fray and fight.
 
 
  • Old City Hall: Midway Middle Street was for several years, in 1296, the two original townhouses built Old Town Hall. It is today the best preserved building in the town. The Town Hall was the merger of two houses, the house has left older Gothic available, is the center of the Renaissance entrance and the hall on the floor (now a restaurant). Younger Baroque house is available. Both houses are connected by baroque portal in the back of the passage. The Town Hall was rebuilt in the late 15th and early 16 century, further modifications were made ​​in the 18 and 19 century. The last extensive reconstruction comes from 1995. Town Hall served its purpose until the nineties of the 19th century, when it was built in the new Palacky Square (today's town hall is located at the Masaryk Square). Tower of the old town hall is now tilted a few degrees to the street and said to her "Slovácká Pisa" which is quite ironic, since the technique works in sand sediments of the Morava River in the Middle Ages was taken from the Italian Venice lagoon and consisted in drilling long wooden trunks of oak, pine, spruce or pine in a sand substrate (see figure). Wood was at that time widespread and the technology implemented in Italy often artisans producing lodě.Uherská way: During the Middle Ages was the old trade route to Hungary translated to pass through the city. After the bridge over the Morava River passes through the gate to the Old Marian Square after the main square, today Masaryk, which veered into today Havlíčkovy street. Relic of this trip is the fact that Havlíčkova street joins the Masaryk Square also under unusual 45 degree angle instead of rectangular, as is customary in the Middle Ages, then Kunovice gate left the city and went towards Vlárskému průsmyku.Pevnost: The city's fortifications were initially wooden, later more fortification around since the mid-14th century they started to build stone walls, after the Czech-Hungarian wars in the late 15th century, the fort was rebuilt. There were several gates. Survived the "burnt", today called Matthias. Claims about her that is so low that it all had to bow his head. Matthias Corvinus also had to bow his head before the town and donate to a knight character for valor in defending the fort during the Czech-Hungarian War. Uherské Fort was captured in its history only once, and that the Prussians 1742.Kaple St. Elizabeth.: The oldest building in town is the Chapel of St. Elizabeth., which was desecrated during the reign of Joseph II., and also served as a tavern and store. Following extensive repairs in 1995 from it lékárna.Dům The Sun: The only preserved Renaissance building is the House of the Sun from 1578 with Renaissance arcades 5.5 meters high. Such was then building regulations that it could drive a fully loaded car. served as a storehouse salt. adjacent arcade of the pharmacy is only aesthetic adjustment is made ​​for the reconstruction of the house in the 19th století.Františkánský Monastery: In the two orders - the Franciscans and the Jesuits. Franciscan monastery was founded in 1490 by John Filipec. has its great value refectory. Today the building district occupies an archive.
  • Jesuits: Jesuit buildings in Masaryk Square consist of today and děkanátního parish church. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit college and high school theater, with the Reduta. It was made ​​by John Jerome Canevall the years 1670-1685. Project vytvořilJan Dominik Orsi. The main altarpiece is an Indian prince Holy Baptism. Francis Xavier author John George Heinsch from 1689. In the side chapels of the most valuable baroque paintings (the author Ignaz Raab) and sculpture (the sculptor Ondřej Schweigel). The church, like the Venetian churches, standing on a wooden rack made ​​of pine, in the fifties of the 20th centuries were the pillars running probe and technological research confirmed that the wood found in perfect condition. The Palacky Square Baroque chapel.Šebestiánapostavená garrison town in 1715 as an expression of gratitude for the plague epidemie.Lékárna The Gold Crown: Baroque Pharmacy golden crown served its purpose since the end of the 17th century. In the second quarter of the 18th stoletíbyly two original town houses, standing in this place, rebuilt in Baroque style. In 1884 were associated pseudorenasanční façade with graffiti, the author was Joseph Schaniak. The interior is complete with original ceiling fresco (Ignatz Joseph Sadler), supplemented stucco from the mid-18th The Owls století.Dům: Marianske Square No. 46 This is an old baroque house. The Owls name is not original and comes from the nineties of the 20th century. The shields were often hidden dating to the Latin text. It used to be common for text, mostly biblical, hid copies sights year and was placed on the portal above the entrance to the building.
 

 

Culture

City by the Culture Club operates seven houses of culture (Culture Club, Reduta, Slovácká shebang, Mařatice MKZ, MKZ Sets, Vésky MKZ, MKZ Míkovice), which is in the context of the whole country an unprecedented number. In Uherské Hradiště is also a cinema. As there are three theaters: Slovácké fully professional theater, semi-professional and amateur theater Hoffman SKI Vésky. Possibility of visiting the permanent and temporary exhibitions on the city and the region offers Slovácké museum. Every year there is also a nationally renowned place of films Summer Film School. The city hosts one of the biggest folk events Czech Republic - Moravian-Slovak Festival Wine and monuments. It is home to the regional newspapers Slovácké newspapers, Good day with Courier, etc. The city has over 35 culturally oriented civic associations. Among the most important folklore Hradišťan Kunovjan, CM Jaroslav Cech, Burčáci, Hradišťánek and many others.


Sights

  • Sets "Špitálky" - a National Historic Landmark, the Great Moravian acropolis, remains an important religious complex of the Great Moravian Empire, possibly the last resting place of Prince Svatopluk or Bishop Methodius.
  • Church of St. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit college, Reduta
  • Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Sadech
  • Church of the Annunciation
  • Baroque fountain in Masaryk Square
  • Štanclová Pharmacy Golden Crown - rare sgraffito, baroque fresco
  • Matthias Gate - rather reconstruction of the original medieval gate, main gate of the "back" or later "burnt" (demolished after a fire in 1609)
  • The remains of medieval walls in Water Street - The rebuilt castle bastion of the dwelling house
  • The Old Town Hall
  • Palace of Justice - New-Renaissance style building built in the years 1891-1897 was the seat of the regional court, which today is located in the premises of the Arts Secondary School.
  • Plague column on Marienplatz
  • Chapel. Elizabeth - the oldest preserved building in early Gothic elements
  • Chapel. Sebastian Palacky Square - built in 1715 the urban garrison, in 1969, was moved by rail from its original site at the hotel about 32 meters on the newly built bases - it was a test of technology that was later used in moving the decanal church in Most. 
  • Synagogue - today's library Buchlovan Bedrich Benes, restored in 2002 to its original form in the color of the facade, fitted with a plaque in English and Hebrew, according to surviving tower backbone photos in style pseudomaurském 
  • Remnants of the Jewish cemetery in Sadech of 1879, destroyed by the Wehrmacht in 1943 
  • Sun Hotel - the original medieval arcades in neighboring pharmacy is a modification of 19 century
  • Slovácká shed in the Smetana Park
  • Wine Cellar Lisa - old wine cellar
  • School building by the architect Joseph Schaniaka
  • functionalist building and building societies Spa at Palacky Square by architect Bohuslav Fuchs
  • Gallery of Moravian Museum in Otakarova street

Nature and surroundings

The surrounding countryside is characterized by a varied landscape and nature reserves, the Morava river with extensive riparian forests with original flora afaunou. Unusual is the technical construction of the Bata Canal, located near the two captivating mountains, Chřiby and the White Carpathians zvláštnímbiotopem. Westernmost spur of the Carpathians, respectively. their parts - Vizovické Hills, Black Mountain is a hill (302.2 m asl), better known by the name Rochus chapel of St. Roch Maratice east of the town of. Near the basilica on nalézárománská Velehrad and medieval lapidary, castle Buchlovice, Buchlov Castle, where Count Friedrich Berchtold and his bratrLeopold gathered from his travels naturalist collection, an Egyptian mummy, etc.

Celebrities

Natives

  • Bambas Daniel (born 1980), a Czech film and theater actor
  • Jan Antonin Bata (1898-1965), industrialist, heir and successor of the Bata shoe company, economist, benefactor, founder of cities and settlements, a candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Bedrich Benes Buchlovan (1885-1953), writer, translator from German and Polish teacher and librarian (street Bedrich Benes on the estate Buchlovan East)
  • Zdeněk Chalabala (* 1899), pianist, violinist, music journalist, music educator and conductor of the opera
  • Peter Charlie (* 1951), bohemista, an expert on syntax
  • Ruda Kubicek (1891-1983), painter, museum employee, Director School of Applied Arts and Esperanto (the street on the estate Rudy Kubicek East)
  • Left Otakar (1896-1946), a Czech literary historian, Romanist and translator from French
  • Vojtech Luža (1891-1944), Czech general, legionnaire World War I, leader of the Czechoslovak anti-fascist resistance
  • Francis Nábělek, botanist
  • Miroslav Náplava, traveler, worked personalities such as Thor Heyerdahl, Erich von Däniken and Arthur C. Clarke
  • Petr Necas (* 1964), politician, chairman of ODS, the Minister and the Prime Minister
  • Erik Pardus (1957-2011), actor
  • Jiří Pavlica (b. 1953), musician, violinist and performer Moravian folklore, Bandmaster file Hradišťan
  • Pecen Anthony (Tony Peckham), a member of the second resistance, Colonel RAF Air Gunner 311thCzechoslovak Bomber Squadron RAF
  • Alois Prazak (1820-1901), Baron, JUDr., Baron, a prominent Moravian nobleman, politician and parliamentarian, the Austrian minister, lawyer, contributed to the cancellation of robots in Moravia
  • Henry Prucha (1886-1914), a famous Czech painter, impressionist
  • Schaniak Josef (1845-1905), an architect, a master of colorful facades and graffiti
  • Václav Jaroslav Stanek (1922-1978), a painter, and from 1950-1975 the first bandmaster Hradišťan original file (the street on the estate Jaroslav Stanek East)
  • Vera Sukova (1931-1982), tennis player
  • Stanislav Šácha, Wireless Operator 311th Czechoslovak Bomber Squadron RAF
  • Vladislav Vaculka (1914-1977), painter, printmaker, ceramist and sculptor (the street on the estate Vladislav Vaculka East)
  • Ida Vaculková (1920-2003), painter, sculptor and artist, painter wife of Vladislav Vaculka
  • Miki Volek (1943-1996), a Czech rock singer, musician and songwriter
  • Zelnitius Anthony (1876-1957), Old Teacher, chronicler and organist, Moravian archaeologist and world traveler, has significantly contributed to the research and záchranuvelkomoravských archaeological sites in the Old Town

Personalities associated with the city

  • Antonin Bata elder, shoemaker and entrepreneur, since 1886 lived and did business in Uherské Hradiště, where he had his company
  • Tomas Bata, Shoemaker, grew up in the district Uherské Hradiště - fish alternately lived here between 1886 to 1894, ie from their 10 to 18 years
  • Tomas Bata Jr., "Tommy", a shoemaker, he studied Business Academy in Uherské Hradiště
  • Milan Blahynka, literary critic and historian, in the years 1939 - 1944 he lived in Uherské Hradiště
  • Felix Kadlinský, a Jesuit monk, writer and translator
  • Matthias Corvinus, king, feudal, character, devoted to the urban character of the knight
  • Kožík Francis, a prominent writer and Esperanto, a part of his life spent in Uherské Hradiště
  • Francis Kretz, an honorary citizen of Hungary Fort, built Ethnographic Museum, gave him all his collections, which purchased from its own resources in the surrounding villages
  • Svatopluk I., king, feudal, seat Veligrad sometimes identified with the city
  • St.. Konstantin, philosopher, creator of the Glagolitic fonts
  • St. Methodius, he ascribes authorship Cyrillic, place of work on Špitálkách Sadech
  • Anthony Šuránek, Olomouc spiritual seminary servant of God, he studied in his youth and in old age lived in Uherské Hradiště
  • Tas of Boskovic, diplomat, bishop of Olomouc
  • John Werichova, beginning at Slovácké Theatre in Uherské Hradiště in season 1957-1958
  • Bohuslav Fuchs, the architect of international respect and acclaim in Uherské Hradiště designed several buildings

Preparatory prayer

God, you sent our ancestors saints Cyril and Methodius preached the Gospel to them Slavic language, grant that we also gladly accept your message, we follow it in their lives and their intercession, whether we are all connected in the unity of faith and love.